清代中期與末期朝鮮的文化認同:歷史案例研究

Korea's Culture Identity in Mid and Late Qing Dynasty: A Historical Case Study

楊仕樂(Shih-Yueh Yang)

政治學報;73期 (2022/06) P 33 - 72

關鍵字:文化認同 ; 中國崛起 ; 明朝 ; 清朝 ; 朝鮮, Culture Identity ; Rise of China ; Ming Dynasty ; Qing Dynasty ; Korea

中文摘要

區域國家如何應對中國霸權?除了典型的現實主義權力政治觀點,建構主義式的文化認同觀點認為,區域國家是否認同中國文化,是關鍵的因素。明朝時,朝鮮對明朝是從反抗到順從甚至拼死效忠,其對明朝的中國文化認同,是在雙方長期互動累積的氣氛醞釀之下,再經明朝兩度大軍協防抵禦日本入侵之後,才驟然產生的。不過,朝鮮對明朝的效忠就是對後續清朝的抵抗,清初時朝鮮迫於威逼而得服從清朝,但到了清朝末年朝鮮內部卻也有持續效忠清朝的呼聲。朝鮮到了清末,對清朝是否也有文化認同?若有,其形成的過程是否與明朝時相同?本文發現,經清代中期至末期,朝鮮仍然認同明朝所代表的中國文化正統。明代所建立起的文化認同呈現驚人的持續力,歷經近三百年之後仍然存在。

英文摘要:

How do regional states respond to Chinese hegemony? In addition to the typical realist view of power politics, the constructivist view of cultural identity holds that whether regional states accept and admire Chinese culture is the key factor. While Korea was strongly against the Ming Dynasty in early days, it became loyal to the Ming until the very end of the Ming Dynasty, Korea's Chinese cultural identity to the Ming was brewed in an atmosphere of long-term interaction between the two sides and then show up suddenly after Ming's protection of Korea against the Japanese aggression. Korea'ss allegiance to the Ming was exactly the resistance to the follow-up Qing. In the early Qing, Korea was forced to submit, but in the late Qing period, there were calls for continued allegiance to the Qing. Did Korea also develop a cultural identity with the Qing by late Qing period? If so, was the process the same as in the Ming? This article finds that, form mid to late Qing, Korea still adhered to the legitimate Chinese culture represented by Ming. This cultural identity established during the Ming showed an astonishing persistence, which existed for almost three centuries.

全文下載:連結

中國創新試驗與國家冠軍私企的形成過程:以華為為例

China's Innovative Sandbox and the Formation of the Privately-Owned National Champions: A Case Study on Huawei

鄭家琪(Chia-Chi Cheng)

政治學報;73期 (2022/06) P105 - 148

關鍵字:冠軍私企 ; 政策試驗 ; 國家資本主義 ; 華為 ; 創新系統 ; Privately-Owned National Champion ; Pilots ; State Capitalism ; Huawei ; The Innovative System

中文摘要

中國國家資本主義是一種國家主導與學習的雙向型態,本文稱之為「具雙向試驗性中國國家資本主義」。在自上而下方面,中國共產黨擁有絕對的權力,但是當市場出現新變化或新行動者,此時國家會以市場承諾做為管理新資本家的工具。在自下而上方面,創新活動除了提供國家市場管理方式的調適,也為政府擇優協助的思維提供具體的運作機制。面對新變化或新行動者產生制度真空時,中國透過試驗性質的企業選擇機制,從而選擇冠軍企業,在新創產業冠軍私企能夠抗衡官僚機構和抵禦既有制度的約束。以資訊產業的通訊技術研發為例,國有企業礙於產權受制於國資委,造成短期研發決策趨向。是以,冠軍私企不單是增加市場份額的領頭羊,更是中國調適統治方式的利益代表。

英文摘要:

Chinese state capitalism is bidirectional, which the government will conduct the market and learn from the market; therefore, we recognize it as Chinese bidirectional and experimental state-capitalism. On the one hand, although the Chinese government has the absolute authority, while the new changes or actors emerge in the market, the government will manage those changes or actors by means of their promise on the market. On the other hand, the innovative activities provide not only the adjustment of managing market but also the concrete mechanism of how the government chooses the enterprises to assist. Facing the institutional vacuum created by the innovation or the new actors, China chooses the certain enterprise to be the national champion by means of the experimental mechanism. Meanwhile, the existence of the privately-owned national champion is necessary for the innovative activities in China to balance the involvement of the bureaucracy and the restrictions of the existed institution. The startup company in the information industry is a good example. The state-owned enterprises can not development design policy is restricted as well, due to the existence of SASAC. Thus, the privately-owned national champion is not only the leader of the market share, but also the interest representative of China's adjustment of market policy.

全文下載:連結

以「理事關係」為視角探究司馬光的世界觀和政治觀

Research of Sima Guang's Worldview and Political View by the Viewpoint About the Relation of Phenomena and Reality

袁承維(Cheng-Wei Yuan)

政治學報;73期 (2022/06) P1 - 31

關鍵字:司馬光 ; 理氣關係 ; 理事關係 ; 熙寧變法 ; Sima Guang ; The Relation Between Li and Qi ; The Relation of Phenomena and Reality ; Xi-Ning Reform

中文摘要

唐宋變革後,士人成為政治參與的主力,士人因思維模式的不同,影響他如何看待這個世界、如何處理問題。本文認為透過研究司馬光的思維模式,以及展現在「為學」和「處世」兩個層面的爭論,是適合的例證。在「理在氣先」論述的影響下,司馬光採取「別異」理解看待萬物,認為「理」體現著「中」之性,「具體事物」中唯有具「中和」之性者符應於「道」,他習於在相異事物中找尋符合理想者,此一習慣基於「事」有常規方能行之。司馬光認為聖人體道,而後制禮樂刑政以規範人事,禮樂刑政作為納「變」以體「常」的重要工具,具體法制制定後,便不應隨意變更。相關思考展現在「如何變革」和「如何取利」等議題之上。在此理解下,在「如何變革」的議題,司馬光主張朝廷採取「被動」角色;在「如何取利」的規劃,司馬光強調採取「節制」的財政策略。故他在面對熙寧變法,提倡朝廷不應主導政經分配,影響仕紳階層原本具有的政經優勢。

英文摘要:

After the Tang-Song transformation (唐宋變革), the intellectuals became the leading roles in politics, and they thought and dealed with the problems by the mode of thought. The mode of thought originated from explaining the relation between Li (the Great Rule) and Qi (vital energy). Sima Guang was used to thinking by the formula of "top-down" and distinguishing. When talking about issues like "how to change" and "how to gain benefit," they discoursed by the mode of thought. The policies of finance were effected by these opinions of Sima Guang. Sima Guang claimed that the Court has to be a passive role for the issue to reform and adopts temperate financial policy for the issue to gain benefit. Therefore, he opposed that the Court leads the distribution of political and economic resources in Xi-Ning Reform.

全文下載:連結

日本政府開發援助中廣電項目的發展脈絡與現況

The Context and Current Status of Broadcasting Aid in Japan' Official Development Assistance

林鴻亦(Hung-Yi Lin)

政治學報;73期 (2022/06) P73 - 103

關鍵字:全日本體制 ; 政府開發援助 ; 資訊通訊科技 ; 影視內容 ; 廣播電視 ; All Japan Approach ; Official Development Assistance ; Information and Communication Technology ; Media Content ; Radio and TV Broadcasting

中文摘要

日本自二戰以來長期向開發中國家提供經濟援助,而廣播電視作為經濟、社會基礎建設的一環,也是日本政府開發援助(official development assistance, ODA)的重點項目。本文對日本廣電ODA的發展提出三個階段。一是1950~1970年的萌芽期,其特徵在於日本藉戰後賠償之際,一邊官方與民間共同合作向亞洲輸出廣電基礎設施、擴大電子工業出口,一邊又協助美國在亞洲的冷戰布局;二是1970~1990年代這段廣電ODA從案件發掘、屬性分類、資源調度到結案的制度化時期。而參與者以外務省、總務省、經濟產業省官僚與國際協力機構為首,邀集日本放送協會、電話通訊公司、相關民間法人、顧問公司、電器製造廠與貿易商等共同合作。90年代起更結合日本民間放送聯盟共同推動影視內容輸出,擴大日本大眾文化商品流通國際的利基;三是2000年至今,除延續至今的廣電ODA工作,更重要的是結合民間的多元業種,共同在傳遞日本文化上貢獻力量。這種稱為ALL JAPAN的全方位行銷,試圖讓日本各產業皆能受惠於文化交流的的果實。而另一方面,日本也隨著區域衝突頻發下國際組織的人道主義需求,增訂了廣電ODA在衝突後的和平建構、大型天災後的播出工作,以及女性的社會參與等應扮演的關鍵角色;進一步在全球安全保障層次中提升日本的軟實力。

英文摘要:

Since the Second World War, Japan has provided economic assistance to developing countries. A component of economic and social infrastructures, radio and television broadcast has been a focal item of official development assistance (ODA) provided by the Japanese government. This study divided the Japanese radio and television broadcast ODA development into three stages. (a) 1950-1970: The feature of this stage was that the Japanese government exported radio and television broadcast infrastructure facilities to Asian countries through public and public sector collaboration and expanded its electronic industry exports during the post-war compensation period. During this stage, Japan also helped the US government's deployment in Asia during the Cold War; (b) 1970-1990: The radio and television broadcast ODA during this period is systemized into case discovery, attribute classification, resource allocation, and case conclusion. The main participants were officers from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, and Japan International Cooperation Agency. Joint collaboration from Japan Broadcasting Corporation, telecommunication companies, related private-sector organizations, consulting companies, electronics appliance manufacturers, and trading companies was urged. Since the 1990s, the Japan Commercial Broadcasters Association has joined the mission of promoting the export of films and television content and increasing the circulation of Japan's popular cultural products; (c) 2000 to present day: In addition to the continuous radio and television broadcast ODA tasks, multiple industries in the private sector have contributed to the transmission of Japanese culture. ALL JAPAN, a comprehensive marketing strategy, is aimed to facilitate all industries in Japan in benefitting from the fruition of cultural exchanges. Moreover, in response to the humanitarianism demand of international organizations under frequent regional conflicts, the aid provided in the domain of foreign broadcasting service helps bolster other causes, including post-conflict peace building, restoring broadcasting service after large-scale natural disasters, and facilitating women's social participation. Through these efforts, Japan seeks to enhance its soft power by promoting global security and protecting its national interests.

全文下載:連結