中國大陸的村莊治理與公共財供給-一個政治經濟分析

Village Governance and Public Goods Provision in Rural China: An Analysis of Political Economy

曹海濤(Hai-Tao Tsao) ; 柯朝斌(Chao-Pin Ko) ; 楊宜勳(I-Hsun Yang)

政治學報;51期 (2011/06) P1 – 28

關鍵字:地方公共財, 村民委員會選舉 , 鄉村治理, 鄉鎮財政 , local public goods , township public finance, village governance , villages' committee election

中文摘要

本研究以談判理論為基礎,探討「後農業稅時代」中國大陸農村基層治理問題。在農村推行基層選舉的背景下,村民委員會選舉強化了村莊的自治能力;另一方面,取消農業稅雖然在某種程度上減輕了農民的負擔,但卻惡化了鄉鎮財政能力。兩種作用相互影響,使得村莊公共財的總供給未必增加,村莊治理也未必更加完善。因此,於相同議題的文獻中,便可能出現不同的實證結果。透過本文的模型分析發現,基層選舉與取消農業稅對於村莊公共財總供給的影響,取決於村莊的所得規模。經濟較富裕、鄉村工商業較發達的社區,即使稅費改革後來自鄉鎮政府的公共財投資下降,村莊公共財總供給也未必會減少;相反地,經濟貧困的社區,其公共財總供給則會因來自鄉鎮政府的公共財投資下降而陷入停滯。

英文摘要:

The main purpose of this paper is to delve into the issue of village governance in the era of agriculture reform in rural China. We view village governance as a bargaining between villagers' committee and township government by virtue of Nash bargaining theory. The abrogation agriculture tax mitigates the burden upon Chinese farmers, but it exacerbates township government's public finance. Therefore, grass-roots democracy intensifies and enlarges villages' self-governance but it is not a necessary result to improve village governance due to the insufficient supply of local public goods. We indicate that the level of the supply of local public goods depends on the income of villages in the terms of our model. The rich village will attain much public investment than the poor counterpart even if they all confront the financial predicament descended from township government after the reform of agriculture tax.

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亞太主義與東亞主義對峙下的東協加八

Confrontation between Asia-Pacificism and East-Asianism: ASEAN+8

廖舜右(Shun-Yo Liao)

政治學報;51期 (2011/06) P29 – 51

關鍵字:亞太主義, 亞太經合會, 東亞主義, 東亞高峰會 , 東協加八, Asia-Pacificism , Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation , ASEAN plus Eight , East-Asianism , East Asia Summit

中文摘要

本文係以區域主義角度來探討「東協加八」,並分析其與亞太經合會的競合關係。B. Obama總統宣示美國為太平洋國家後,積極推動重返東亞政策,最顯著的事件即為美國於2011年成為東亞高峰會成員,「東協加八」正式成型。美國主導的亞太主義進入原本僅存在東亞主義架構下的東亞高峰會後,東亞高峰會將成為亞太主義與東亞主義直接對峙的場域;另一方面,亞太經合會向為美國推動亞太主義的重要平台,未來發展可能受「東協加八」的影響而回歸於經貿議題的方向。

英文摘要:

The purpose of this article is to examine the formation of ASEAN+8 and its interaction with APEC from the perspectives of regionalisms. The United States began to restore its preponderance status in East Asia since President Obama declared himself the President of the Pacific Ocean. The most significant development in this regard includes the accession of the United States to East Asia Summit in 2011. Asia-Pacificism, led by the United States, will confront directly with East-Asianism in ASEAN. Due to the impacts of ASEAN+8, APEC would return its agenda setting back to economic concerns excluding security issues.

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水權費開徵之可行性評估

The Feasibility Analysis of the Water Rights Fee

張筵儀(Yan-Yi Chang) ; 陳金哲(Chin-Cher Chen) ; 羅光達(kuang-Ta Lo)

政治學報;51期 (2011/06) P53 – 103

關鍵字:水資源管理 , 水權費開徵, 可行性評估, 共享性資源 , 混合方法, common-pool resource, feasibility analysis, mixed methods , water resource management , water rights fee

中文摘要

水資源不穩定的台灣,應如何進行水資源的合理分配與管理,長期以來未受到應有的重視,尤其農業、工業與民生用水等,在經濟發展、生態保育及政治影響等複雜因素的糾葛下,擁有合法水權狀者,對於水資源的應用考量,各有其立場。有鑑於此,如何依據《水利法》的規定,從課徵水權使用費的角度,評估開徵水權費的可行性,建立公平合理的水資源使用機制,提供政策說服的可行策略為本研究目標。本研究採取混合方法論的途徑,資料蒐集過程分為兩階段,在第一階段的質性研究面向上,研究團隊與開徵水權費時受到影響之所有利害關係人進行焦點訪談,並就訪談資料加以分析;第二階段則以量化研究方法,就前階段之資料分析結果,設定調查議題並進行問卷調查,以瞭解開徵水權費所將面臨的影響及挑戰,對於水資源主管機關而言,如何綜合這些影響因素並慎選政策時機,將是其推動政策順利與否的關鍵。綜合前述分析,以水利署水權費開徵之SWOT分析得出部分開徵水權費可行性,藉由個案的分析結果,就台灣水資源、管理改革所需面對的政策時機拿捏及更重要的可行性考慮。同時,本文研究成果還提出水權交易的可行性分析,以及農田水利會對水權費開徵的重要影響,本文結論認為,政治上的效應才是水權管理機關能否建構有效推動政策的第一考量。

英文摘要:

In recent years, the issue of water resources has seen the increased attention being given by the public and the private sector. Also, it has been highly concerned by the International Commission on Climate Change (International Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) because of the deterioration of water resources scarce. Moreover, water resources were viewed as the limited natural resources, which every country intends to actively develop and possess. It is very similar to the typical Common-Pool Resource with necessity and rival but not excludability. In Taiwan, water resources are unstable, and the rational allocation of water resources management appears to have been neglected for a long time. Therefore, the aim of this article attempts to evaluate the political possibility of levying water rights fee based on the Water Law. It is also expected to establish the mechanism for using water resources and offer the possible strategies for persuading policy. This research involved the mixed methodology, comprised of the quantitative of and qualitative approaches. The first stage is to conduct focus group interviews to investigate the policy stakeholders. The second stage is to use the questionnaire to survey the related policy stakeholders. According to the above results, we use SWOT to analyze the political possibility of levying water rights fee of Water Resource Agency. Overall, results of this study provide the reflections and challenges on the levying water rights fee. In conclusion, whether the policies could be effectively built and promoted by water rights management organization, it depends on the political effect.

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演化賽局在生態保育運動之應用-以湖山水庫興建為例

A Game Theoretic Approach to the Resistance Movement of Ecological Reservation in Taiwan: A Case Study on the Construction of the Hushan Dam

李建正(Chien-Cheng Lee) ; 邱明斌(Ming-Ping Chiu)

政治學報;51期 (2011/06) P105 – 142

關鍵字:生態保育抗爭運動, 仲裁, 最適反應策略, 演化賽局理論, arbitration, best response strategies , evolutionary game theory, resistance movement of ecological reservation

中文摘要

本研究主要透過演化賽局理論,分析湖山水庫生態保育抗爭運動中,公部門、保育團體與地方居民三者之行為互動模式,並探究不同的情境下,各參賽者的「最適反應策略」。本研究主要發現為:演化賽局理論就參賽者之間的關係,其解釋力是理性賽局理論所不及的。本研究進一步提出未來生態保育抗爭運動發展的可行途徑,例如,「聽證」、「公民訴訟」等管道,並建議以仲裁取代行政訴訟之可行性。

英文摘要:

This research applies ”Evolutionary Game Theory” to analyze the interactions among the public sectors, the environmental protection organizations, and local residents in movement of ecological reservation (RMER). Furthermore, this study also investigates what types of the strategies that the participants should adopt in order to achieve the ”Best Response Strategies” under various decision-making circumstances. The major finding of this research is that Evolution Game Theory can provide better explanations on both the interrelationships between resisters, and between resisters and public sectors than the Rational Game Theory. This study also suggests several alternatives such as ”Hearing” and ”Civic Lawsuit” for RMER's future development, and perhaps, the possibility of replacing administrative procedures with arbitration.

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