全球天下觀:由平面到球型的國際秩序面貌

Globalized Tianxia: From Flat International Order into a Spherical One

陳欣之(Hsin-Chih Chen)

政治學報;60期 (2015/12) P1 – 20

關鍵字:天下, 天命 , 國際體系 , 權力轉移, 霸權治理 , Tianxia, Tianming (heaven's mandate) , international system , power transition, hegemonic governance

中文摘要

天下觀是華夏民族處理國家間政治關係的思想結晶,它初步生成於周代,歷經歷代中華王朝的政治統御分合實踐,成為中華政治思想的重要元素。中國大陸學者趙汀陽企圖以華夏天下觀為理論基礎,提出「天下體系」,以為天下體系乃是具有內部包容性的共同存在秩序。很可惜趙汀陽的天下體系,未能解釋世界政治的競爭與權力互動,而且其論述邏輯亦有待商議。回顧周代初期創建天下概念之天、天下、天命等基本概念,華夏天下觀可以解析國際秩序的轉移面貌。華夏天下觀,亦提供吾人更多有關霸權治理與國際關係霸業秩序塑成的認識。由傳統平面華夏天下觀轉換而來的三維球型全球天下觀,得以突破傳統華夏天下觀的二維平面空間侷限以及華夷文化偏見,發展一個具有華夏政治思想元素,並且解釋全球政治體系變遷的國際關係分析途徑。本文發現,全球天下觀「天命靡常」的安全不確定性,對於層級特性的霸權轉移,有更佳的解析力。

英文摘要:

"Tianxia," a concept firstly developed in the Zhou Dynasty, has been practiced throughout the Chinese history and become the essence of Chinese political thought in dealing with inter-state relations. Base on the traditional notion of Tianxia perspectives, Zhao Tingyang, a Chinese scholar, argues that the Tianxia system is an inclusive world order of co-existence. Nevertheless, Zhao's thesis can hardly explain the dynamics of power competition in global politics. By synthesizing original concepts of Tian (heaven), Tianxia (all under heaven), and Tianming (heaven's mandate), the traditional Chinese Tianxia indeed not only well explains the transformation of international order but also inspires us for the understandings of hegemonic governance and the transition of hegemonic order. This article removes the Chinese-barbarian cultural bias in the traditional Chinese Tianxia and develops a new research approach to international relations: Globalized Tianxia. It concludes that hegemonic transitions and governance patterns can be better explained by "Heaven's Uncertain Mandate" of the Globalized Tianxia.

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大陸臺商的族群認同與公民身分:一個反思途徑的質性研究

The Ethnic Identity and Citizenship of Taiwanese Merchants in Mainland China: Qualitative Research with a Reflexive Approach

衛民(Min Wei)

政治學報;60期 (2015/12) P71 – 95

關鍵字:臺商研究, 連綴社群, 跨國主義, 場域論, 方法論的民族主義, Taiwanese merchants research, linkage community, transnationalism, field theory, methodological nationalism

中文摘要

近年學界對大陸臺商社群及其所形成的認同,開始有了較多的研究,主要關切臺商經歷長 時期橫跨兩岸的生活型態,對於他們的集體認同與情感是否會產生影響。
當前對此議題一些較新的文獻,主要歧異點在於:究竟臺商此種遷移型態是屬於傳統移 民?還是跨國移民 (transnational immigrant) ?甚或是一種民族內的遷移?前者是社會學移民研 究的觀點,這也是傳統海外華人研究的一個重要領域;其次則有臺商研究學者以「跨國主義」 (transnationlism) 觀點來進行探討;晚近另有學者並從政治學的觀點著手,所採取之觀點乃緣自 「多體制國家」、「分裂國家」或「共同屋頂理論」(common roof theory) 的主張,並由其中演 化出「民族內共同體」、「連綴社群」的概念。
本文乃以布赫迪厄 (Bourdieu) 的「場域論」 (field theory) 作為研究途徑,基本經驗資料是 獲自 2013 年 7、8 月間在大陸臺商聚集最多的昆山與東莞兩地所進行的田野研究之材料,文中 運用這些獲自田野之實際訪談對於上述概念的合理性進行探討。
根據文獻探討及田野研究的內容,本文意圖建立一個有關臺商認同的類型學 (typology),除 了就「方法論的民族國家容器」觀點與「社會流動論」觀點,來區辨臺商遷徙的型態,並且嘗 試進一步確認此類移民在公民身分及族群認同上與傳統民族國家成員之間所存有的差異。

英文摘要:

Whether the life experiences and mode the Taiwanese merchants in Mainland China affect their ethnic identity with Taiwan has been extensively explored by scholars. The key issue indeed is how to define what kind of migrants they are. Are they traditional migrants, transnational migrants, or people movement within a nation-state? Sociologists might see them as traditional migrants and call them overseas Chinese; while political scientists have applied theories of multi-system nations, divided nation, or the common roof theorem and suggest notions of “intra-national commonwealth” or “linkage community” to delimit the group. The objective of this article is to develop a typology based on data collected from Kunshan and Dongguan in field studies during July and August in 2013. In addition to perspectives of nationalism and fluidism, this study confirms that the identities of ethnicity and citizenship of this group of people are not the same as those addressed in traditional comparative studies of migration across nation states.

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臺灣國土規劃政策之政治經濟分析,1945~2015

The Political Economy of National Spatial Planning Policy in Taiwan, 1945 ~ 2015

邱君萍(Chun-Ping Chiu) ; 蕭全政(Chyuan-Jenq Shiau)

政治學報;60期 (2015/12) P21 – 39

關鍵字:國土規劃, 都市計畫 , 區域計畫 , 國土綜合開發計畫, 國土空間發展策略計畫, national spatial planning, urban planning , regional planning , national comprehensive development plan , strategic plan for national spatial development

中文摘要

戰後臺灣的國土規劃政策,深受其政經體制的特質及相關行為者之間的關係與行動影響。戰後臺灣的政經體制,從威權體制、威權轉型,到民主鞏固階段,將其國土規劃政策分成以都市計畫、區域計畫及國土規劃為不同特色的三個階段;其中,威權體制時期的都市計畫、區域計畫階段,嚴格而言,根本不能算是國土規劃政策,但在威權轉型和民主鞏固時期,該政策卻逐漸轉向國土規劃,而且慢慢發展成真正的國土規劃政策。在此其中,每個時期內與土地利用或土地利益相關的行為者,包括主管機關的政府,或土地所有人、相關團體或民意機關,都利用相關政策、組織和制度的形成與變動,進行偏差動員,而促成國土管理體制的形成與變遷。本文的主旨,即利用偏差與偏差動員的概念,分析戰後臺灣的國土規劃政策,在其政經體制三個不同時期的發展與變遷。

英文摘要:

Taiwan's national spatial planning policy has been deeply influenced by its political-economic system and the relationship among key actors since the end of World War II. This article adopts the concepts of "bias" and "bias mobilization" to analyze the policy evolution thereof. Through the stages of authoritarian rule, authoritarian transformation, and democratic consolidation, Taiwan's political-economic system has distinguished this policy area into three phases. Under the authoritarian rule, the urban and regional planning policies, strictly speaking, could hardly be seen as national spatial planning. Nevertheless, the policy gradually transformed into greater maturity in the later stages of authoritarian transformation and democratic consolidation. In the processes, all the related actors, including the government authorities, land owners, and others, have utilized institutional transformations and mobilized biases for their own interests. Such patterns bring about policy changes.

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都市治理的權力與政策網絡之研究:以高雄市溫室氣體減量策略計畫為例

A Study of the Power-Policy Network for City Governance: The Case of the Kaohsiung Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy

柯于璋(Yu-Chang Ke)

政治學報;60期 (2015/12) P41 – 70

關鍵字:都市治理, 權力, 政策網絡 , 權力社會產生論 , 高雄市溫室氣體減量策略計畫 , urban governance, power , policy network , social production of power, the Kaohsiung greenhouse gas reduction strategy

中文摘要

全球環境治理是複雜性高、不確定性高的多層次治理議題,建立政策網絡可以適度地降低不確定性與複雜性,但對於權力與都市治理可能產生移轉與再造。本研究以高雄市溫室氣體減量策略計畫為個案研究,利用社會網絡分析與問卷調查探討都市治理的權力、網絡關係面向。首先,本研究利用文獻分析,探討都市治理理論的沿革,確立以權力與政策網絡為主的研究架構。第二,本研究整理政策網絡關係的四大面向,並與權力的結構、過程、結果三個面向整合,進行都市治理分析。第三,針對該政策網絡的44個公私成員進行問卷調查與分析,探討政策網絡關係與權力。最後,診治都市治理問題與研提網絡管理之策略。研究結果顯示,高雄市政府雖然致力於治理結構的改變,但是從權力結構、政策網絡互動、結果觀察,該政策網絡仍偏向官僚體制,尚未進化到都市政體或治理理論。

英文摘要:

Global environmental governance is a highly complicated, uncertain and multi-level issue. Constructing a policy network may reduce the complexity and uncertainty, but may also shift the power structure of urban governance. This study adopts a social network analysis with survey methodology to evaluate the power -- policy network relationships for urban governance of the Kaohsiung Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy. Four aspects of a policy network and three dimensions of power (structure, process, and outcome) are integrated into an analytic framework. 44 public and private sector agencies involved in the policy are surveyed. In the end, strategies of network management are presented in response to issues of urban governance. Although the City Government of Kaohsiung endeavors on the changes of governance structure, the observed dynamics of power structures, network interactions, and policy outcomes suggests that the policy network of the case, falling short of the requirements for urban regime or governance, still favors the bureaucracy.

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